Covid-19 Research

Review Article

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier:

Relationship between Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation, Systematic Review

Medicine Group    Start Submission

Youssef Elias Ammar, Cristianne Confessor Castilho Lopes*, Eduardo Barbosa Lopes, Lucas Castilho Lopes, Maria Eduarda Castilho Lopes, Carolina Alves Quintanilha, Eduardo Santanna Nubile, Isabella Cunha Barbosa, Guilherme Carrijo Olanda, Samara Maia Silva, Wendy Rodrigues Porto, Marilda Morais Da Costa, Tulio Gamio Dias, Kyra Esteves Ururahy Rodrigues, Lucas Sena Dos Santos Borges, Joacir Ferreira Junior, Heliude De Quadros E Silva, Fabio Herget Pitanga, Marivane Lemos, Daniela dos Santos and Marcus Vinicius Vasconcelos Goncalves

Dates: Received: 2023-03-18 | Accepted: 2023-03-28 | Published: 2023-03-30
Pages: 546-554


Introduction: Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is not only one of the main causes of stroke, but it is also the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. As a result of population aging, an increase in the prevalence of AF and other associated chronic cardiovascular diseases, such as Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM), is expected, contributing to a higher incidence of stroke. The magnitude of this fact reflects the reason why stroke is considered the second cause of death in the world, and the first cause of death in Brazil, in addition to being the second cause of cognitive losses. The main causes that favor the occurrence of ischemic stroke determine the situation of risk groups. Such factors can be classified as modifiable, non-modifiable and potential risk group.

Objective: The aim of this study was to systematically review the public health literature on the relationship between ischemic stroke and atrial Fibrillation.

Methods: Systematized literature review performed by searching the Web of Science database (Clarivates), Science Direct (Scopus), Wiley Online Library (John Wiley and Sons), Taylor and Francis (Taylor & Francis Group) and PubMed (NIH), using the descriptors Relationship between Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation and other cardiovascular diseases in primary care, both in English and Portuguese. A total of 3860 articles were found, of which 64 were selected for the review by six evaluators independently. The articles surveyed are from the period 2015 to 2022.

Results: In addition to the epidemiological magnitude, AF is important for its clinical consequences, including thromboembolic occurrences, with an increase, on average, of 4 times the probability of a stroke, in addition to being correlated with the high risk of all-cause mortality and other circumstantial determinants, such as heart failure. Conclusion: The analyzed studies demonstrated that there may be an adjusted incidence of ischemic stroke associated with AF and other cardiovascular diseases by stroke age, being age dependent in men. Social factors may contribute to the late discovery of the association between stroke, AF and other cardiovascular diseases.

FullText HTML FullText PDF DOI: 10.37871/jbres1709

Certificate of Publication


© 2023 Ammar YE, et al. Distributed under Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0

How to cite this article

Ammar YE, Castilho Lopes CC, Lopes EB, Lopes LC, Castilho Lopes ME, Quintanilha CA, Nubile ES, Barbosa IC, Olanda GC, Silva SM, Porto WR, Da Costa MM, Dias TG, Ururahy Rodrigues KE, Dos Santos Borges LS, Junior JF, De Quadros E Silva H, Pitanga FH, Lemos M, dos Santos D, Vasconcelos Gonçalves MV. Relationship between Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation, Systematic Review. 2023 Mar 30; 4(3): 546-554. doi: 10.37871/jbres1709, Article ID: JBRES1709, Available at:

Subject area(s)


  1. de Carvalho JJ, Alves MB, Viana GÁ, Machado CB, dos Santos BF, Kanamura AH, Lottenberg CL, Neto MC, Silva GS. Stroke epidemiology, patterns of management, and outcomes in Fortaleza, Brazil: a hospital-based multicenter prospective study. Stroke. 2011 Dec;42(12):3341-6. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.626523. Epub 2011 Nov 3. PMID: 22052521.
  2. Battaglini D, Robba C, Lopes da Silva A, Dos Santos Samary C, Leme Silva P, Dal Pizzol F, Pelosi P, Rocco PRM. Brain-heart interaction after acute ischemic stroke. Crit Care. 2020 Apr 21;24(1):163. doi: 10.1186/s13054-020-02885-8. PMID: 32317013; PMCID: PMC7175494.
  3. Ribeiro AL, Duncan BB, Brant LC, Lotufo PA, Mill JG, Barreto SM. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives. Circulation. 2016 Jan 26;133(4):422-33. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.008727. PMID: 26811272.
  4. GBD 2015 Neurological Disorders Collaborator Group. Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders during 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet Neurol. 2017;16(11):877-897.
  5. Saidi O, O'Flaherty M, Zoghlami N, Malouche D, Capewell S, Critchley JA, Bandosz P, Ben Romdhane H, Guzman Castillo M. Comparing Strategies to Prevent Stroke and Ischemic Heart Disease in the Tunisian Population: Markov Modeling Approach Using a Comprehensive Sensitivity Analysis Algorithm. Comput Math Methods Med. 2019 Jan 29;2019:2123079. doi: 10.1155/2019/2123079. PMID: 30838048; PMCID: PMC6374861.
  6. Maida CD, Norrito RL, Daidone M, Tuttolomondo A, Pinto A. Neuroinflammatory Mechanisms in Ischemic Stroke: Focus on Cardioembolic Stroke, Background, and Therapeutic Approaches. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Sep 4;21(18):6454. doi: 10.3390/ijms21186454. PMID: 32899616; PMCID: PMC7555650.
  7. January CT, Wann LS, Alpert JS, Calkins H, Cigarroa JE, Cleveland JC Jr, Conti JB, Ellinor PT, Ezekowitz MD, Field ME, Murray KT, Sacco RL, Stevenson WG, Tchou PJ, Tracy CM, Yancy CW; ACC/AHA Task Force Members. 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2014 Dec 2;130(23):2071-104. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000040. Epub 2014 Mar 28. Erratum in: Circulation. 2014 Dec 2;130(23):e270-1. PMID: 24682348.
  8. Gumprecht J, Domek M, Lip GYH, Shantsila A. Invited review: hypertension and atrial fibrillation: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and implications for management. J Hum Hypertens. 2019 Dec;33(12):824-836. doi: 10.1038/s41371-019-0279-7. Epub 2019 Nov 5. PMID: 31690818.
  9. de Almeida Franzoi AE, de Souza Moreira BB, Patti MM, Amaral CH. Use of anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation in a first stroke event and in relapses. Arq Catarinenses Med [Internet]. 2018;53–63.
  10. European Heart Rhythm Association; Heart Rhythm Society; Fuster V, Rydén LE, Cannom DS, Crijns HJ, Curtis AB, Ellenbogen KA, Halperin JL, Le Heuzey JY, Kay GN, Lowe JE, Olsson SB, Prystowsky EN, Tamargo JL, Wann S, Smith SC Jr, Jacobs AK, Adams CD, Anderson JL, Antman EM, Hunt SA, Nishimura R, Ornato JP, Page RL, Riegel B, Priori SG, Blanc JJ, Budaj A, Camm AJ, Dean V, Deckers JW, Despres C, Dickstein K, Lekakis J, McGregor K, Metra M, Morais J, Osterspey A, Zamorano JL; American College of Cardiology; American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines; Writing Committee to Revise the 2001 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation. ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation--executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2001 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Aug 15;48(4):854-906. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2006.07.009. Erratum in: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Aug 7;50(6):562. PMID: 16904574.
  11. Carvalho MA, Coutinho AP de O, Carvalho GDA de, Taynã D, Queiróz G, Santos SR dos. Epidemiology Of Stroke Treatment Assisted Through The Mobile Emergency Care Service. Rev enferm UFPE line. 2015;1015–21.
  12. Katan M, Luft A. Global Burden of Stroke. Semin Neurol. 2018 Apr;38(2):208-211. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1649503. Epub 2018 May 23. PMID: 29791947.
  13. Yoshida HM, Barreira J, Fernandes PT. Motor skill, depressive symptoms and cognitive function in post-stroke patients. Physioter and Research. 2019 Mar;26(1):9–14.
  14. Macêdo JLC de, Rodrigues LRS, Rodrigues AP de CP, Alencar FJ, Lopes LAMR, Moura CR de B, et al. Influence of virtual reality on balance of hemiparetic patients after stroke Brazilian J Heal Rev. 2020;3(4):10674–84.
  15. Melo LS, Emerick LMS, Alves PNM, Rocha TB, Goveia VR, Guimarães GL, et al. STROKE: CLINICAL FINDINGS AND MAIN COMPLICATIONS. Rev Aten Saúde. 2016;14(48):48–53.
  16. Lakhan SE, Kirchgessner A, Hofer M. Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: therapeutic approaches. J Transl Med. 2009 Nov 17;7:97. doi: 10.1186/1479-5876-7-97. PMID: 19919699; PMCID: PMC2780998.
  17. Soler EP, Ruiz VC. Epidemiology and risk factors of cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases: similarities and differences. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2010 Aug;6(3):138-49. doi: 10.2174/157340310791658785. PMID: 21804773; PMCID: PMC2994106.
  18. Crowther MA. Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Hematol Am Soc Hematol Educ Progr. 2005;436–41.
  19. Arboix A, Alio J. Acute cardioembolic cerebral infarction: answers to clinical questions. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2012 Feb;8(1):54-67. doi: 10.2174/157340312801215791. PMID: 22845816; PMCID: PMC3394108.
  20. Murtagh B, Smalling RW. Cardioembolic stroke. Vol. 8, Current Atherosclerosis Reports. 2006. p. 310–6.
  21. Wardlaw JM. What causes lacunar stroke? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 May;76(5):617–9.
  22. Cuadrado-Godia E, Dwivedi P, Sharma S, Ois Santiago A, Roquer Gonzalez J, Balcells M, Laird J, Turk M, Suri HS, Nicolaides A, Saba L, Khanna NN, Suri JS. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Review Focusing on Pathophysiology, Biomarkers, and Machine Learning Strategies. J Stroke. 2018 Sep;20(3):302-320. doi: 10.5853/jos.2017.02922. Epub 2018 Sep 30. PMID: 30309226; PMCID: PMC6186915.
  23. Sacco RL, Ellenberg JH, Mohr JP, Tatemichi TK, Hier DB, Price TR, Wolf PA. Infarcts of undetermined cause: the NINCDS Stroke Data Bank. Ann Neurol. 1989 Apr;25(4):382-90. doi: 10.1002/ana.410250410. PMID: 2712533.
  24. Saposnik G. What Is Certain When the Stroke Etiology Is Uncertain? Stroke. 2012 Nov;43(11):2841–2.
  25. Altieri M, Troisi P, Maestrini I, Lenzi GL. Cryptogenic stroke: cryptic definition? Stroke. 2009 Aug;40(8):e530; author reply e531-e532. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.553966. Epub 2009 Jun 18. PMID: 19542055.
  26. Finsterer J. Management of cryptogenic stroke. Acta Neurol Belg. 2010 Jun;110(2):135-47. PMID: 20873443.
  27. January CT, Wann LS, Alpert JS, Calkins H, Cigarroa JE, Cleveland JC Jr, Conti JB, Ellinor PT, Ezekowitz MD, Field ME, Murray KT, Sacco RL, Stevenson WG, Tchou PJ, Tracy CM, Yancy CW; ACC/AHA Task Force Members. 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2014 Dec 2;130(23):2071-104. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000040. Epub 2014 Mar 28. Erratum in: Circulation. 2014 Dec 2;130(23):e270-1. PMID: 24682348.
  28. Liu T, Korantzopoulos P, Xu G, Shehata M, Li D, Wang X, Li G. Association between angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphism and atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. Europace. 2011 Mar;13(3):346-54. doi: 10.1093/europace/euq407. Epub 2010 Nov 13. PMID: 21076147.
  29. Friberg L, Hammar N, Ringh M, Pettersson H, Rosenqvist M. Stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation: who gets it and who does not? Report from the Stockholm Cohort-study on Atrial Fibrillation (SCAF-study). Eur Heart J. 2006 Aug;27(16):1954-64. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehl146. Epub 2006 Jul 17. PMID: 16847008.
  30. Lip GYH, Nieuwlaat R, Pisters R, Lane DA, Crijns HJGM. Clinical risk stratification for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation using a novel risk factor-based approach. Chest [Internet]. 2010 Feb;137(2):263-72.
  31. Lippi G, Sanchis-Gomar F, Cervellin G. Global epidemiology of atrial fibrillation: An increasing epidemic and public health challenge. Int J Stroke. 2021 Feb;16(2):217-221. doi: 10.1177/1747493019897870. Epub 2020 Jan 19. Erratum in: Int J Stroke. 2020 Jan 28;:1747493020905964. PMID: 31955707.
  32. Zulkifly H, Lip GYHH, Lane DA. Epidemiology of atrial fibrillation. Int J Clin Pract [Internet]. 2018 Mar;72(3):e13070.
  33. Colilla S, Crow A, Petkun W, Singer DE, Simon T, Liu X. Estimates of current and future incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the U.S. adult population. Am J Cardiol. 2013 Oct 15;112(8):1142-7. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.05.063. Epub 2013 Jul 4. PMID: 23831166.
  34. Cheung CC, Nattel S, Macle L, Andrade JG. Management of Atrial Fibrillation in 2021: An Updated Comparison of the Current CCS/CHRS, ESC, and AHA/ACC/HRS Guidelines. Can J Cardiol. 2021 Oct;37(10):1607-1618. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2021.06.011. Epub 2021 Jun 26. PMID: 34186113.
  35. Sandhu RK, Albert C. Screening the Older Population for Atrial Fibrillation-Have We Moved the Needle Forward? JAMA Cardiol. 2021 May 1;6(5):495-496. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2021.0052. PMID: 33625482.
  36. Marini C, De Santis F, Sacco S, Russo T, Olivieri L, Totaro R, Carolei A. Contribution of atrial fibrillation to incidence and outcome of ischemic stroke: results from a population-based study. Stroke. 2005 Jun;36(6):1115-9. doi: 10.1161/01.STR.0000166053.83476.4a. Epub 2005 May 5. PMID: 15879330.
  37. You JJ, Singer DE, Howard PA, Lane DA, Eckman MH, Fang MC, et al. Antithrombotic Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2):e531S- e575S.
  38. Gorelick PB. The overall burden of stroke: persistent and disabling. Lancet Neurol. 2019 May;18(5):417–8.
  39. Oliveira-Filho J, Martins SCO, Pontes-Neto OM, Longo A, Evaristo EF, de Carvalho JJF, et al. Guidelines for treatment of ischemic stroke - part I. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2012;70(8):621–9.
  40. Vicente VS, Cabral NL, Nagel V, Guesser VV, Safanelli J. Prevalence of obesity among stroke patients in five Brazilian cities: a cross-sectional study. Arch Neuropsiquiatr. 2018 Jun;76(6):367–72.
  41. Madsen TE, Khoury J, Alwell K, Moomaw CJ, Rademacher E, Flaherty ML, Woo D, Mackey J, De Los Rios La Rosa F, Martini S, Ferioli S, Adeoye O, Khatri P, Broderick JP, Kissela BM, Kleindorfer D. Sex-specific stroke incidence over time in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study. Neurology. 2017 Sep 5;89(10):990-996. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004325. Epub 2017 Aug 9. PMID: 28794254; PMCID: PMC5589794.
  42. Barker-Collo S, Bennett DA, Krishnamurthi RV, Parmar P, Feigin VL, Naghavi M, Forouzanfar MH, Johnson CO, Nguyen G, Mensah GA, Vos T, Murray CJ, Roth GA; GBD 2013 Writing Group; GBD 2013 Stroke Panel Experts Group. Sex Differences in Stroke Incidence, Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years: Results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Neuroepidemiology. 2015;45(3):203-14. doi: 10.1159/000441103. Epub 2015 Oct 28. PMID: 26505984; PMCID: PMC4632242.
  43. Appelros P, Stegmayr B, Terént A. Sex differences in stroke epidemiology: a systematic review. Stroke. 2009 Apr;40(4):1082-90. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.540781. Epub 2009 Feb 10. PMID: 19211488.
  44. Petrea RE, Beiser AS, Seshadri S, Kelly-Hayes M, Kase CS, Wolf PA. Gender differences in stroke incidence and poststroke disability in the Framingham heart study. Stroke. 2009 Apr;40(4):1032-7. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.542894. Epub 2009 Feb 10. PMID: 19211484; PMCID: PMC2676725.
  45. Sacco RL, Boden-Albala B, Gan R, Chen X, Kargman DE, Shea S, Paik MC, Hauser WA. Stroke incidence among white, black, and Hispanic residents of an urban community: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Feb 1;147(3):259-68. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009445. PMID: 9482500.
  46. Silva PGMBE, Sznejder H, Vasconcellos R, Charles GM, Mendonca-Filho HTF, Mardekian J, Nascimento R, Dukacz S, Fusco MD. Anticoagulation Therapy in Patients with Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation in a Private Setting in Brazil: A Real-World Study. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020 Mar;114(3):457-466. English, Portuguese. doi: 10.36660/abc.20180076. PMID: 32049154; PMCID: PMC7792730.
  47. Marcolino MS, Palhares DM, Benjamin EJ, Ribeiro AL. Atrial fibrillation: prevalence in a large database of primary care patients in Brazil. Europace. 2015 Dec;17(12):1787-90. doi: 10.1093/europace/euv185. Epub 2015 Jun 7. PMID: 26056188; PMCID: PMC4700731.
  48. Kawabata-Yoshihara LA, Scazufca M, Santos I de S, Whitaker A, Kawabata VS, Benseñor IM, et al. Atrial fibrillation and dementia: results from São Paulo aging & health study. Arq Bras Cardiol [Internet]. 2012 Dec;99(6):1108–14.
  49. Santos IS, Lotufo PA, Brant L, Pinto Filho MM, Pereira ADC, Barreto SM, Ribeiro AL, Thomas GN, Lip GYH, Bensenor IM. Atrial Fibrillation Diagnosis using ECG Records and Self-Report in the Community: Cross-Sectional Analysis from ELSA-Brasil. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021 Sep;117(3):426-434. English, Portuguese. doi: 10.36660/abc.20190873. PMID: 34550227; PMCID: PMC8462958.
  50. Favarato D. Brazilian Population Presents Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation Similar to Higher Income Countries, and a Low Use of Anticoagulation Therapy. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021 Sep;117(3):435-436. English, Portuguese. doi: 10.36660/abc.20210562. PMID: 34550228; PMCID: PMC8462960.
  51. Amaral CH do, Amaral AR, Nagel V, Venancio V, Garcia AC, Magalhaes PS, et al. Incidence and functional outcome of atrial fibrillation and non-atrial fibrillation-related cardioembolic stroke in Joinville, Brazil: a population-based study. Arq Neuropsiquiatr [Internet]. 2017 May;75(5):288–94.
  52. Benjamin EJ, Wolf PA, D'Agostino RB, Silbershatz H, Kannel WB, Levy D. Impact of atrial fibrillation on the risk of death. Circulation [Internet]. 1998 Sep 8;98(10):946–52.
  53. Krahn AD, Manfreda J, Tate RB, Mathewson FAL, Cuddy TE. The natural history of atrial fibrillation: Incidence, risk factors, and prognosis in the Manitoba follow-up study. Am J Med [Internet]. 1995 May;98(5):476–84.
  54. Emdin CA, Wong CX, Hsiao AJ, Altman DG, Peters SAE, Woodward M, et al. Atrial fibrillation as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in women compared with men: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMJ [Internet]. 2016 Jan 19;h7013.
  55. Wann LS, Curtis AB, January CT, Ellenbogen KA, Lowe JE, Estes NA 3rd, Page RL, Ezekowitz MD, Slotwiner DJ, Jackman WM, Stevenson WG, Tracy CM; 2011 Writing Group Members; Fuster V, Rydén LE, Cannom DS, Le Heuzey JY, Crijns HJ, Lowe JE, Curtis AB, Olsson S, Ellenbogen KA, Prystowsky EN, Halperin JL, Tamargo JL, Kay GN, Wann L; 2006 Writing Committee Members; Jacobs AK, Anderson JL, Albert N, Hochman JS, Buller CE, Kushner FG, Creager MA, Ohman EM, Ettinger SM, Stevenson WG, Guyton RA, Tarkington LG, Halperin JL, Yancy CW; ACCF/AHA Task Force Members. 2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (updating the 2006 guideline): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2011 Jan 4;123(1):104-23. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0b013e3181fa3cf4. Epub 2010 Dec 20. Erratum in: Circulation. 2011 Aug 2;124(5):e173. PMID: 21173346.
  56. Alonso A, Agarwal SK, Soliman EZ, Ambrose M, Chamberlain AM, Prineas RJ, Folsom AR. Incidence of atrial fibrillation in whites and African-Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Am Heart J. 2009 Jul;158(1):111-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.05.010. PMID: 19540400; PMCID: PMC2720573.
  57. January CT, Wann LS, Calkins H, Chen LY, Cigarroa JE, Cleveland JC Jr, Ellinor PT, Ezekowitz MD, Field ME, Furie KL, Heidenreich PA, Murray KT, Shea JB, Tracy CM, Yancy CW. 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS Focused Update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Jul 9;74(1):104-132. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.01.011. Epub 2019 Jan 28. Erratum in: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Jul 30;74(4):599. PMID: 30703431.
  58. Ball J, Carrington MJ, McMurray JJ, Stewart S. Atrial fibrillation: profile and burden of an evolving epidemic in the 21st century. Int J Cardiol. 2013 Sep 1;167(5):1807-24. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.12.093. Epub 2013 Feb 4. PMID: 23380698.
  59. Chugh SS, Havmoeller R, Narayanan K, Singh D, Rienstra M, Benjamin EJ, Gillum RF, Kim YH, McAnulty JH Jr, Zheng ZJ, Forouzanfar MH, Naghavi M, Mensah GA, Ezzati M, Murray CJ. Worldwide epidemiology of atrial fibrillation: a Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study. Circulation. 2014 Feb 25;129(8):837-47. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.005119. Epub 2013 Dec 17. PMID: 24345399; PMCID: PMC4151302.
  60. Zimerman LI, Fenelon G, Martinelli-Filho M, Grupi C, Atié J, Lorga-Filho A. Brazilian Society of Cardiology. Brazilian Guidelines on Atrial Fibrillation. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2009;92(Supplement 1):1–39.
  61. Silva AMG da. Regulation of non-coding RNAs in Atrial Fibrillation. Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte; 2020.
  62. Goulart AC, Olmos RD, Santos IS, Tunes G, Alencar AP, Thomas N, et al. The impact of atrial fibrillation and long-term oral anticoagulant use on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: A 12-year evaluation of the prospective Brazilian Study of Stroke Mortality and Morbidity. Int J Stroke [Internet]. 2022 Jan 25;17(1):48–58.


Swift, Reliable, and studious. We aim to cherish the world by publishing precise knowledge.

  • asd
  • Brown University Library
  • University of Glasgow Library
  • University of Pennsylvania, Penn Library
  • University of Amsterdam Library
  • The University of British Columbia Library
  • UC Berkeley’s Library
  • MIT Libraries
  • Kings College London University
  • University of Texas Libraries
  • UNSW Sidney Library
  • The University of Hong Kong Libraries
  • UC Santa Barbara Library
  • University of Toronto Libraries
  • University of Oxford Library
  • Australian National University
  • ScienceOpen
  • UIC Library
  • KAUST University Library
  • Cardiff University Library
  • Ball State University Library
  • Duke University Library
  • Rutgers University Library
  • Air University Library
  • UNT University of North Texas
  • Washington Research Library Consortium
  • Penn State University Library
  • Georgetown Library
  • Princeton University Library
  • Science Gate
  • Internet Archive
  • WashingTon State University Library
  • Dimensions
  • Zenodo
  • OpenAire
  • Index Copernicus International
  • icmje
  •  International Scientific Indexing (ISI)
  • Sherpa Romeo
  • ResearchGate
  • Universidad De Lima
  • WorldCat
  • JCU Discovery
  • McGill
  • National University of Singepore Libraries
  • SearchIT
  • Scilit
  • SemantiScholar
  • Base Search
  • VU
  • KB
  • Publons
  • oaji
  • Harvard University
  • sjsu-library
  • UWLSearch
  • Florida Institute of Technology
  • CrossRef
  • LUBsearch
  • Universitat de Paris
  • Technical University of Denmark
  • ResearchBIB
  • Google Scholar
  • Microsoft Academic Search