Covid-19 Research


  • Page views 694
  • PDF Downloads 32

ISSN: 2766-2276
> General Science. 2021 May 20;2(5):328-332. doi: 10.37871/jbres1236.

 |   |   | 

open access journal Case Series

Clinical Findings and Prognosis of COVID-19 Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Case Series

Sepideh Babaniamansour1, Ahmadreza Atarodi2, Parto Babaniamansour3, Mohammad Dehghani Firouzabadi4, Mohammadreza Majidi5 and Sepideh Karkon-Shayan6*

1School of Medicine, Islamic Azad University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Razavi Khorasan, Iran
3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
4ENT and Head & Neck Research Center. The Five Senses Health Institute. Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5Student Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran/ Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran
6Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran
*Corresponding author: Sepideh Karkon-Shayan, Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran, Tel: +989-149-238077, ORCID: 0000-0002-1278-723X; Tel: +351-913-582-058; E-mail:
Received: 16 April 2021 | Accepted: 19 May 2021 | Published: 20 May 2021
How to cite this article: Babaniamansour S, Atarodi A, Babaniamansour P, Firouzabadi MD, Majidi M, Karkon-Shayan S. Clinical Findings and Prognosis of COVID-19 Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Case Series. J Biomed Res Environ Sci. 2021 May 20; 2(5): 328-332. doi: 10.37871/jbres1236, Article ID: JBRES1236
Copyright:© 2021 Babaniamansour S, et al. Distributed under Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0.
  • COVID-19
  • Prostatic hyperplasia
  • Patient outcome assessment

Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is accompanied by high comorbidities and a worse prognosis in those with underlying diseases. Older men are more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) accounts for a large portion of this population, so this study presented the clinical and paraclinical features of 20 COVID-19 patients with BPH and their outcome. The mean age of participants was 76.8 ± 7.9 years. Respiratory symptoms are the most common complaints and Ground glass and opacities infiltration were the most frequent findings in the chest computed tomography. Mostly the level of C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase were high, but hemoglobin and lymphocyte count were low. They underwent standard management and all were discharged and stayed alive in the one-month follow-up. Besides the high prevalence of BPH and high mortality rate of COVID-19 in older men, the present study showed that COVID-19 patients with BPH had a good prognosis.

Ongoing Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) became one of the most challenging issues in the health system, worldwide [1,2]. COVID-19 is a multifaceted disease with multiorgan comorbidities. It is presented as cough, fever, dyspnea, headache, myalgia, and urinary symptoms. COVID-19 is infected millions of people and has a high potency of poor prognosis in those with underlying diseases. COVID-19 is diagnosed by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test in the world besides it can make significant non-specific changes in the radiological and laboratory results [3-10].

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) occurs in more than half of men aged 60 years and higher worldwide [11]. It is a result of stromal and epithelial proliferation following the aging population and changes of androgens thus lead to restrict the urine flow and increase the risk of urinary infection. Given the fact that older men are more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection and BPH accounts for a large portion of this population, considering their prognosis is of paramount importance [11-15].

Limited studies are presenting the clinical features of COVID-19 in patients with BPH and the prognosis is still a matter of debate [16]. This study aimed to present the clinical and paraclinical features of COVD-19 patients with BPH and their outcome with one-month follow-up.

This study was conducted at general internal medicine of Allameh Behlool Gonabadi Hospital Education, Research and Medical Center, affiliated to Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran, between April and August 2020. Twenty patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in this study (Of whom all had BPH and received α-blockers or 5α-reductase inhibitors. They were all Caucasian and resisted in Gonabad, Iran. No other underlying disease was reported). COVID-19 was diagnosed based on positive results of the RT-PCR test.

The mean age of participants was 76.8 ± 7.9 years. None of the patients had a history of close contact with a known or suspected case of COVID-19 in the last 4 two weeks. Most patients complained about dyspnea, cough, and distress. In a systematic review, there was no further complaint except for the aforementioned ones in table 1. Ground glass and opacities infiltration were the most frequent findings in the chest CT-scan reports, but there was no evidence of cavitation, calcifications of lymph node or plaque, cyst, pericardial effusion, mediastinal enlargement, reticulation, fibrotic changes, and bronchiectasis.

The patients underwent standard management according to their clinical status and risk factors. Nine patients received hydroxychloroquine as the main treatment (With no reported side effect) and all of the patients were discharged from the hospital, stayed alive in the one-month follow-up, and revealed no developed symptoms in favor of COVID-19 (Table 1).

Table 2 shows the laboratory findings in CBC, coagulation, inflammation, and biochemical terms. In most cases, the level of CRP and LDH were high and the level of Hb and lymphocyte count were low (Table 2).

Table 1: Baseline information, chest CT-scan findings and treatments.
Case Symptoms PMH and Habits Vital signs Positive findings in
chest CT-scan
1 Dyspnea, cough, distress Nothing SBP(197), DBP(93), O2 Sat(90), T(37), HR(110) Ground glass opacities infiltration, pleural effusion Hydroxychloroquine, Ceftriaxone, and supportive therapy
2 Dyspnea Nothing SBP(174), DBP(98), O2 Sat(90), T(36), HR(100) Lobular involvement, solid nodules, atelectasis Supportive therapy
3 Dyspnea, fever, significant weight loss, cough, Smoking, opium addict SBP(108), DBP(59), O2 Sat(97), T(38), HR(80) Emphysema, chest wall thickness Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, Meropenem, Ciprofloxacin, and supportive therapy
4 Fever, diarrhea, loss of appetite, weakness, anorexia, Nothing SBP(95), DBP(55), O2 Sat(96), T(38), HR(85) Consolidation, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, cardiomegaly, Emphysema Hydroxychloroquine, Meropenem, Vancomycin, and supportive therapy
5 Dyspnea, low extremities edema, dysphagia, distress Smoking SBP(81), DBP(57), O2 Sat(75), T(36), HR(109) Solid nodules Supportive therapy
6 Dyspnea, weakness, nausea, vomiting Nothing SBP(123), DBP(78), O2 Sat(97), T(37), HR(70) Ground glass opacities infiltration Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone, and supportive therapy
7 General edema, distress Smoking, opium addict SBP(81), DBP(57), O2 Sat(75), T(36), HR(103) Solid nodules Supportive therapy
8 Weakness Nothing SBP(108), DBP(63), O2 Sat(96), T(37), HR(73) Pleural effusion Hydroxychloroquine and supportive therapy
9 Dyspnea, cough, distress Nothing SBP(156), DBP(86), O2 Sat(93), T(37), HR(101) Ground glass opacities infiltration, solid nodules Ceftriaxone and supportive
10 Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting Nothing SBP(152), DBP(86), O2 Sat(97), T(37), HR(85) No abnormal findings Hydroxychloroquine, Ceftazidime, and supportive therapy
11 Fever, dyspnea, weakness Nothing SBP(149), DBP(74), O2 Sat(95), T(39), HR(90) Ground glass opacities infiltration Supportive therapy
12 Fever, nausea, vomiting weakness Nothing SBP(128), DBP(93), O2 Sat(94), T(39), HR(92) Ground glass opacities infiltration, Consolidation Hydroxychloroquine, Ceftriaxone, and supportive therapy
13 Nausea, vomiting Nothing SBP(135), DBP(75), O2 Sat(93), T(36), HR(85) Ground glass opacities infiltration, solid nodules Supportive therapy
14 Chills, dyspnea, cough, distress Nothing SBP(142), DBP(78), O2 Sat(70), T(37), HR(110) Consolidation Hydroxychloroquine and supportive therapy
15 Fever, dyspnea Nothing SBP(108), DBP(59), O2 Sat(97), T(38), HR(80) Emphysema Azithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Meropenem, and supportive therapy
16 Cough Nothing SBP(150), DBP(90), O2 Sat(95), T(37), HR(80) Ground glass opacities infiltration, pleural effusion Hydroxychloroquine, Cefepime, Co-amoxiclav, and supportive therapy
17 Fever, dyspnea, sweating, cough Smoking, opium addict SBP(108), DBP(59), O2 Sat(97), T(38), HR(75) Emphysema Azithromycin, Meropenem, Ciprofloxacin, and supportive therapy
18 Wheezing, cough Nothing SBP(145), DBP(87), O2 Sat(91), T(37), HR(90) Ground glass opacities infiltration Hydroxychloroquine, Ceftazidime, and supportive therapy
19 Dyspnea, stomachache, cough Nothing SBP(138), DBP(89), O2 Sat(97), T(37), HR(84) Ground glass opacities infiltration, Consolidation Supportive therapy
20 Fever, cough, dyspnea, ageusia, weakness, distress Nothing SBP(108), DBP(75), O2 Sat(93), T(39), HR(105) Ground glass opacities infiltration Ceftriaxone and supportive therapy
PMH: Past Medical History; CT-scan: Computed Tomography scan; HTN: Hypertension; DM: Diabetes Mellitus; CAD: Coronary Artery Disease; SBP: Systolic Blood Pressure; DBP: Diastolic Blood Pressure; O2 Sat: O2 Saturation; T: Temperature
Table 2:  Laboratory findings in case group.
Case CBC Coagulation Inflammation Biochemical
Hb WBC Neut Lymph Plt* PT PTT D-dimer  CRP ESR LDH ALT AST Bil Alb CK Cr
1 13.2 9600 7800 1300 184 13 24 660 0 - 646 61 32 1.4 4.6 505 1.1
2 13.4 7800 5430 710 80 15.3 33.5 8200 2+ 21 787 22 49 0.9 - 179 1.5
3 10.3 10800 8800 1200 436 13 30 - 2+ 84 - - - - - - 0.8
4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
5 11.7 12000 9900 1500 124 26.4 48.6 >8200 3+ 2 820 216 282 1.7 3.5 - 4.3
6 12.4 7400 6200 600 188 13 33.9 - 1+ 66 - - - - - - 4.5
7 11.7 12000 9900 1500 124 26.4 48.6 >8200 3+ 2 820 216 282 1.7 3.5 - 4.3
8 - 8200 -   - - - - - - - - - - - - -
9 12.3 4100 2296 1189 206 15.8 37.4 - 1+ 49 279 11 15 - 4 130 1
10 - - - - - - - 880 - - 267 - - - 4.5 45 -
11 14.8 9100 7660 910 223 16.7 36 - - 6 - 10 20 - - - 1.3
12 15 9500 8600 300 128 17.5 41 940 2+ - 292 40 48 1.3 4.5 28 1.2
13 13.1 4400 1900 1800 89 14.7 32 2740 2+ 11 363 19 37 5.1 4.8 86 1.1
14 9.6 10000 8000 1400 439 16.2 36 >10000 1+ 98 579 49 38 0.6 3.7 223 0.9
15 10.3 10800 6800 750 436 13 30 - 2+ 84 - - - - - - 0.8
16 13.7 6600 5100 1000 200 34 104 455 - 47 4.9 - - 13.4 - 109 3
17 10.3 10800 9600 1200 436 13 30 - 2+ 84 - - - - -   0.8
18 14 5800 4582 928 151 14.7 30 4690 3+ 5 347 - - - 4.1 89 1
19 16.6 7700 5005 2310 250 15.1 35 820 - - 400 - - - - 52 0.9
20 15.7 3400 600 600 110 13 30 755 3+ 4 722 30 55 - 4.2 802 1.2
*Plt was divided by 1000. CBC: Complete Blood Count; Hb: Hemoglobin; WBC: White Blood Cell; Neut: Neutrophil; Lymph: Lymphocyte; Plt: Platelet; PT: Prothrombin Time; PTT: Partial Thromboplastin Time; CRP: C-Reactive Protein; ESR: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate; LDH: Lactate Dehydrogenase; ALT: Alanine Transaminase; AST: Aspartate Aminotransferase; Bil: Bilirubin; Alb: Albumin; CK: Creatinine Phosphokinase; Cr: Creatinine. Normal range: Hb (14-17.5), WBC (4000-11000), Plt (150000-450000), PT (12-14), PTT (24-40), D-dimer (<0.5), ESR (<20), LDH (< 480), AST (< 37), ALT (< 41), Bil direct (0.1-0.3), Alb (3.5-5.2), CK (24-170), Cr (0.7-1.4).

COVID-19 pandemic became an enormous challenge for the health system. It is presented as a mild to severe infection and spreads at an alarming rate worldwide. The severity of symptoms and the patients’ prognosis are function of patients’ health condition, demographic and socioeconomic features. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the possible factors associated with the prognosis of COVID-19 patients [17-19].

In this regard, studies declared that the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients was significantly associated with the presence of underlying diseases. Among 45000 COVID-19 patients in China, the mortality rate was ten times higher in those with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, or hypertension [20,21]. Besides that, elders are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection. A study in Italy showed that more than 90% of COVID-19 patients were over 60 years old, and age was directly associated with the mortality rate [21]. In addition, studies declared that males are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection and worse prognosis than females. In this regard, studies in China, South Korea, and Italy showed that the mortality rate was 59% to 75% in males with COVID-19, which might be related to androgen-mediated mechanisms [20,22-26]. A study declared that the prevalence of COVID-19 was increased progressively in males over 60 years old. Low testosterone level in older men was associated with the decrease in respiratory muscles activities, which made them more susceptible to COVID-19 infection and poor prognosis. BPH is a known non-cancerous condition that is highly prevalent in older men. Patients with BPH usually have all the aforementioned risk factors, besides the high rate of urinary complications and infection [25].

Therefore, patients with BPH are a suitable population for comparing the findings and prognosis. However, limited studies focused on COVID-19 patients with BPH. Topaktas, et al. [11] investigated the COVID-19 prognosis in 18 patients with BPH and showed that only one of them died, two were admitted to the intensive care unit, and the rest had a good prognosis. Consistent with Topaktas, the present study showed that COVID-19 patients with BPH had a good prognosis.

In summary, COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease and affected millions of people. Besides the high prevalence of BPH in older men and the high rate of COVID-19 infection in the age and gender-matched population, the present study showed that COVID-19 patients with BPH had no exacerbation of BPH symptoms and all had a good prognosis. It is highly recommended to perform further studies with a large sample size and compare more laboratory findings like interleukin titration.

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

  1. Zali A, Sohrabi MR, Mahdavi A, Khalili N, Taheri MS, Maher A, Sadoughi M, Zarghi A, Ziai SA, Shabestari AA, Bakhshayeshkaram M, Haghighatkhah H, Salevatipour B, Abrishami A, Raoufi M, Dehghan P, Bagheri AK, Khoshnoud RJ, Hanani K. Correlation Between Low-Dose Chest Computed Tomography and RT-PCR Results for the Diagnosis of COVID-19: A Report of 27,824 Cases in Tehran, Iran. Acad Radiol. 2020 Sep 21:S1076-6332(20)30542-0. doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2020.09.003. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33020043; PMCID: PMC7505583.
  2. Eslami V, Abrishami A, Zarei E, Khalili N, Baharvand Z, Sanei-Taheri M. The Association of CT-measured Cardiac Indices with Lung Involvement and Clinical Outcome in Patients with COVID-19. Acad Radiol. 2021 Jan;28(1):8-17. doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2020.09.012. Epub 2020 Oct 1. PMID: 33041195; PMCID: PMC7528899.
  3. Farzi MA, Ayromlou H, Jahanbakhsh N, Bavil PH, Janzadeh A, Shayan FK. Guillain-Barré syndrome in a patient infected with SARS-CoV-2, a case report. J Neuroimmunol. 2020 Jun 20;346:577294. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2020.577294. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32590125; PMCID: PMC7305747.
  4. Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak. J Autoimmun. 2020 May;109:102433. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433. Epub 2020 Feb 26. PMID: 32113704; PMCID: PMC7127067.
  5. Firouzabadi FD, Firouzabadi MD, Ghalehbaghi B, Jahandideh H, Roomiani M, Goudarzi S. Have the symptoms of patients with COVID-19 changed over time during hospitalization? Med Hypotheses. 2020 Oct;143:110067. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110067. Epub 2020 Jul 1. PMID: 32634735; PMCID: PMC7328546.
  6. Dehghani Firouzabadi M, Dehghani Firouzabadi F, Goudarzi S, Jahandideh H, Roomiani M. Has the chief complaint of patients with COVID-19 disease changed over time? Med Hypotheses. 2020 Nov;144:109974. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109974. Epub 2020 Jun 7. PMID: 32534342; PMCID: PMC7276133.
  7. Saberian P, Mireskandari SM, Baratloo A, Hasani-Sharamin P, Babaniamansour S, Aliniagerdroudbari E, Jamshididana M. Antibody Rapid Test Results in Emergency Medical Services Personnel during COVID-19 Pandemic; a Cross Sectional study. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020 Nov 10;9(1):e2. doi: 10.22037/aaem.v9i1.993. PMID: 33313569; PMCID: PMC7720855.
  8. Nouri-Vaskeh M, Sharifi A, Khalili N, Zand R, Sharifi A. Dyspneic and non-dyspneic (silent) hypoxemia in COVID-19: Possible neurological mechanism. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2020 Nov;198:106217. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106217. Epub 2020 Sep 9. PMID: 32947193; PMCID: PMC7480672.
  9. Huang C, Mazdeyasna S, Mohtasebi M, Saatman KE, Cheng Q, Yu G, Chen L. Speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow in perinatal disease model of neonatal piglets. J Biophotonics. 2021 Apr;14(4):e202000366. doi: 10.1002/jbio.202000366. Epub 2021 Jan 3. PMID: 33295142.
  10. Jalali A, Ehsan Karimi Alavijeh , Ehsan Aliniagerdroudbari , Sepideh Babaniamansour. Incidentally Diagnosed COVID-19 in the Emergency Department: A Case Series. Case Reports in Clinical Practice. 2021 Mar 7;5(Covid-19(2020)):p.145-148.
  11. Topaktaş R, Tokuç E, Ali Kutluhan M, Akyüz M, Karabay E, Çalışkan S. Clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in ageing male: A retrospective study of 18 cases. Int J Clin Pract. 2020 Aug;74(8):e13574. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.13574. Epub 2020 Jun 23. PMID: 32506768; PMCID: PMC7300559.
  12. Boehm K, Ziewers S, Brandt MP, Sparwasser P, Haack M, Willems F, Thomas A, Dotzauer R, Höfner T, Tsaur I, Haferkamp A, Borgmann H. Telemedicine Online Visits in Urology During the COVID-19 Pandemic-Potential, Risk Factors, and Patients’ Perspective. Eur Urol. 2020 Jul;78(1):16-20. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2020.04.055. Epub 2020 Apr 27. PMID: 32362498; PMCID: PMC7183955.
  13. Kim BS, Ko YH, Song PH, Kim TH, Kim KH, Kim BH. Prostatic urethral length as a predictive factor for surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, multiinstitutional study. Prostate Int. 2019 Mar;7(1):30-34. doi: 10.1016/j.prnil.2018.06.002. Epub 2018 Jun 18. PMID: 30937296; PMCID: PMC6424679.
  14. Alireza Jalali, Ehsan Karimialavijeh, Parto Babaniamansour, Ehsan Aliniagerdroudbari, Sepideh Babaniamansour. Predicting the 30-day Adverse Outcomes of Non-Critical New-Onset COVID-19 Patients in Emergency Departments based on their Lung CT Scan Findings; A Pilot Study for Derivation an Emergency Scoring Tool. Frontiers in Emergency Medicine. 2021 Mar 28;0(0).
  15. Mostafa Sadeghi, Peyman Saberian, Parisa Hasani-Sharamin, Fatemeh Dadashi, Sepideh Babaniamansour, Ehsan Aliniagerdroudbari. The Possible Factors Correlated with The Higher Risk of Getting Infected by COVID-19 in Emergency Medical Technicians; A Case-Control Study. Bulletin of Emergency And Trauma. 2021 Apr;9(2):67-72. doi:10.30476/BEAT.2021.89713.
  16. Meshkat S, Salimi A, Joshaghanian A, Sedighi S, Sedighi S, Aghamollaii V. Chronic neurological diseases and COVID-19: Associations and considerations. Transl Neurosci. 2020 Sep 9;11(1):294-301. doi: 10.1515/tnsci-2020-0141. PMID: 33335769; PMCID: PMC7712023.
  17. Sakineh Hajebrahimi, Negar Taleschian-Tabrizi, Sepideh Karkon Shayan, Fariba Pashazadeh, Sarvin Radvar, Ali Motamed-Sanaye, Amirreza Tavassoli. Using Ozone Therapy as an Option for Treatment of COVID-19 Patients: A scoping review Running title: Ozone Therapy for COVID-19. 2020 Apr. doi:10.22541/au.158802287.70368740.
  18. Ahmadiafshar A, Tabbekhha S, Mousavinasab N, Khoshnevis P. Relation between asthma and body mass index in 6-15 years old children. Acta Med Iran. 2013;51(9):615-9. PMID: 24338192.
  19. Sahranavard M, Akhavan Rezayat A, Zamiri Bidary M, Omranzadeh A, Rohani F, Hamidi Farahani R, Hazrati E, Mousavi SH, Afshar Ardalan M, Soleiman-Meigooni S, Hosseini-Shokouh SJ, Hejripour Z, Nassireslami E, Laripour R, Salarian A, Nourmohammadi A, Mosaed R. Cardiac Complications in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Arch Iran Med. 2021 Feb 1;24(2):152-163. doi: 10.34172/aim.2021.24. PMID: 33636985.
  20. Babaniamansour P, Ebrahimian-Hosseinabadi M, Zargar-Kharazi A. Designing an optimized novel femoral stem. Journal of medical signals and sensors. 2017;7(3):170.
  21. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Cardona-Ospina JA, Gutiérrez-Ocampo E, Villamizar-Peña R, Holguin-Rivera Y, Escalera-Antezana JP, Alvarado-Arnez LE, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Franco-Paredes C, Henao-Martinez AF, Paniz-Mondolfi A, Lagos-Grisales GJ, Ramírez-Vallejo E, Suárez JA, Zambrano LI, Villamil-Gómez WE, Balbin-Ramon GJ, Rabaan AA, Harapan H, Dhama K, Nishiura H, Kataoka H, Ahmad T, Sah R; Latin American Network of Coronavirus Disease 2019-COVID-19 Research (LANCOVID-19). Electronic address: Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 Mar-Apr;34:101623. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101623. Epub 2020 Mar 13. PMID: 32179124; PMCID: PMC7102608.
  22. La Vignera S, Cannarella R, Condorelli RA, Torre F, Aversa A, Calogero AE. Sex-Specific SARS-CoV-2 Mortality: Among Hormone-Modulated ACE2 Expression, Risk of Venous Thromboembolism and Hypovitaminosis D. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Apr 22;21(8):2948. doi: 10.3390/ijms21082948. PMID: 32331343; PMCID: PMC7215653.
  23. Mo P, Xing Y, Xiao Y, Deng L, Zhao Q, Wang H, Xiong Y, Cheng Z, Gao S, Liang K, Luo M, Chen T, Song S, Ma Z, Chen X, Zheng R, Cao Q, Wang F, Zhang Y. Clinical characteristics of refractory COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 16:ciaa270. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa270. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32173725; PMCID: PMC7184444.
  24. Chen T, Wu D, Chen H, Yan W, Yang D, Chen G, Ma K, Xu D, Yu H, Wang H, Wang T, Guo W, Chen J, Ding C, Zhang X, Huang J, Han M, Li S, Luo X, Zhao J, Ning Q. Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study. BMJ. 2020 Mar 26;368:m1091. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1091. Erratum in: BMJ. 2020 Mar 31;368:m1295. PMID: 32217556; PMCID: PMC7190011.
  25. Pozzilli P, Lenzi A. Commentary: Testosterone, a key hormone in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Metabolism. 2020 Jul;108:154252. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154252. Epub 2020 Apr 27. PMID: 32353355; PMCID: PMC7185012.
  26. Salahshour F, Mehrabinejad MM, Nassiri Toosi M, Gity M, Ghanaati H, Shakiba M, Nosrat Sheybani S, Komaki H, Kolahi S. Clinical and chest CT features as a predictive tool for COVID-19 clinical progress: introducing a novel semi-quantitative scoring system. Eur Radiol. 2021 Jan 15:1–11. doi: 10.1007/s00330-020-07623-w. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33449185; PMCID: PMC7809225.a

Content Alerts

SignUp to our
Content alerts.

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.