Covid-19 Research

Review Article

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier:

Potential of Pigmented Rice Variety Cempo Ireng in Rice Breeding Program for Improving Food Sustainability

Biology Group    Start Submission

Yheni Dwiningsih* and Jawaher Alkahtani

Dates: Received: 2023-03-01 | Accepted: 2023-03-13 | Published: 2023-03-16
Pages: 426-433


Cempo Ireng (Oryza sativa L. var. Cempo Ireng) is one of the black rice variety in Indonesia that consumed as functional food, not as a staple food because of the black rice contains anthocyanin pigment which has beneficial to human health. High concentration of anthocyanin reaching 393.93 ppm cause black color in the pericarp layer of Cempo Ireng which make this variety as an antioxidant source, low glycemic index, and free of gluten, leading to have higher price in the rice market. However, most of the farmers are not cultivate Cempo Ireng due to the longer vegetative phase up to 150 days compared to the white rice varieties which only takes 90 days, the taller phenotype of Cempo Ireng cause problems in cultivation, and also the purple color of Cempo Ireng attract birds and earhead bug (Leptocorisa oratorius) to feed on black rice caryopsis that cause severe yield loss. Transgenic methods, mutation technique, intensification systems, and physical treatment have been applied in Cempo Ireng to overcome those lack characteristics. In the future, Cempo Ireng also has a big potential to become a parent in cross breeding program because of the positive characters. The aim of this review is to describe the potential of Cempo Ireng in rice breeding program for improving food sustainability.  

FullText HTML FullText PDF DOI: 10.37871/jbres1691

Certificate of Publication


© 2023 Dwiningsih Y, et al. Distributed under Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0

How to cite this article

Dwiningsih Y, Alkahtani J. Potential of Pigmented Rice Variety Cempo Ireng in Rice Breeding Program for Improving Food Sustainability. 2023 Mar 16; 4(3): 426-433. doi: 10.37871/jbres1691, Article ID: JBRES1691, Available at: https://www.

Subject area(s)


  1. Ardiansyah, Nada A, Rahmawati NTI, Oktriani A, David W, Astuti RM, Handoko DD, Kusbiantoro B, Budijanto S, Shirakawa H. Volatile Compounds, Sensory Profile and Phenolic Compounds in Fermented Rice Bran. Plants (Basel). 2021 May 27;10(6):1073. doi: 10.3390/plants10061073. PMID: 34071857; PMCID: PMC8229494.
  2. Dwiningsih Y. Molecular genetic analysis of drought resistance and productivity traits of rice genotypes. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA. 2020.
  3. Kristamtini K, Wiranti E. Clustering of 18 local black rice base on total anthocyanin. Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry. 2017;6(2):47-51. doi: 10.14421/biomedich.2017.62.47-51.
  4. Wijayanti E. Potensi dan prospek pangan fungsional indigenous Indonesia. Presented at Seminar Nasional Pangan Fungsional Indigenous Indonesia: Potensi, regulasi, keamanan, efikasi dan peluang pasar. Bandung. 2004.
  5. Pratiwi R, Amalia AR, Tunjung W, Rumiyati. Active fractions of blck rice bran cv Cempo Ireng inducing apoptosis and S-phase cell cycle arrest in T471D breast cancer cells. J Math Fund Sci. 2019;51(1):47-59.
  6. Rahmawati A, Yuniastuti E, Nandariyah. Increased anthocyanin content in seven furrows of Cempo Ireng black rice with mutation induction. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2020;466:012010. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/466/1/012010.
  7. Dwiningsih Y, Kumar A, Thomas J, Ruiz C, Alkahtani J, Al-Hashimi A, Pereira A. Identification of Genomic Regions Controlling Chalkiness and Grain Characteristics in a Recombinant Inbred Line Rice Population Based on High-Throughput SNP Markers. Genes (Basel). 2021 Oct 24;12(11):1690. doi: 10.3390/genes12111690. PMID: 34828295; PMCID: PMC8625982.
  8. Ichikawa H, Ichiyanagi T, Xu B, Yoshii Y, Nakajima M, Konishi T. Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanin Extract from Purple Black Rice. J Med Food. 2001 Winter;4(4):211-218. doi: 10.1089/10966200152744481. PMID: 12639403.
  9. Ryu SN, Park SZ, Ho CT. High performances liquid chromatographic determination of anthocyanin pigments in some varieties of black rice. J Food Drug Analysis. 1998;6:1710-1715. doi: 10.38212/2224-6614.2893.
  10. Apridamayanti P, Pratiwi R, Purwestri YA, Tunjung WA, Rumiyati. Anthocyanin, nutrient contents, and antioxidant activity of black rice bran of Oryza sativa L. ‘Cempo Ireng’ from Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology. 2017;22(1):49-54. doi: 10.22146/ijbiotech.26401.
  11. Dwiningsih Y, Kumar A, Thomas J, Yingling S, Pereira A. Molecular genetic analysis of drought resistance and productivity in US rice cultivars. Plant and Animal Genome XXVII Conference. 2019.
  12. Pratiwi R, Purwestri YA. Black rice as a functional food in Indonesia. Functional Foods in Health and Disease. 2017;7(3):182-194.
  13. Lee JC, Kim JD, Hsieh FH, Eun JB. Production of black rice cake using ground black rice and medium-grain brown rice. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2008;43(6):1078-1082.
  14. Philpot M, Gould KS, Lim C, Ferguson LR. In situ and in vitro antioxidant activity of sweet potato anthocyanins. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:1710-1715.
  15. Nam SH, Choi SP, Kang MY, Koh HJ, Kozukue N, Friedman M. Antioxidative activities of bran from twenty one pigmented rice cultivars. Food Chem. 2006;94(4):613-620. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.12.010.
  16. Ge X, Khan ZI, Chen F, Akhtar M, Ahmad K, Ejaz A, Ashraf MA, Nadeem M, Akhtar S, Alkahtani J, Dwiningsih Y, Elshikh MS. A study on the contamination assessment, health risk and mobility of two heavy metals in the soil-plants-ruminants system of a typical agricultural region in the semi arid environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022 Feb;29(10):14584-14594. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-16756-4. Epub 2021 Oct 6. PMID: 34617216.
  17. Pujiasmanto B, Ningrum MU, Rahayu M, Nandariyah, Sutarno, Riyatun, Suharyana. Yield trials of black rice Cempo Ireng M7 generation of gamma-ray irradiation. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2021;905:012042. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/905/1/012042.
  18. Maqsood A, Khan ZI, Ahmad K, Akhtar S, Ashfaq A, Malik IS, Sultana R, Nadeem M, Alkahtani J, Dwiningsih Y, Elshikh MS. Quantitative evaluation of zinc metal in meadows and ruminants for health assessment: implications for humans. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022 Mar;29(15):21634-21641. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-17264-1. Epub 2021 Nov 12. PMID: 34767165.
  19. Purwestri YA, Susanto FA, and Fauzia AN. The preliminary study of enhancing black rice as functional food: Expression pattern of flowering genes in long harvest black rice cultivar Cempo Ireng. Proceedings of Pakistan Academy Sciences, in press. 2017.
  20. Dwiningsih Y, Thomas J, Kumar A, Gupta C, Ruiz C, Yingling S, Crowley E, Pereira A. Molecular genetic analysis of drought resistance and productivity mechanisms in rice. Plant and Animal Genome XXVIII Conference. 2020.
  21. Maulana I, Triyaningsih, Nuringtyas TR, Purwestri YA. Expression of rice resistance gene OsNPR1 against Bacterial Leaf Blight on black rice cultivar ‘Cempo Ireng’ after salicylic acid treatment. Asia Pacific Journal of Sustainable Agriculture Food and Energy. 2019;9(1):14-20. doi: 10.36782/apjsafe.v9i1.78.
  22. Dwiningsih Y, Kumar A, Thomas J, Ruiz C, Alkahtani J, Baisakh N, Pereira A. Quantitative trait loci and candidate gene identification for chlorophyll content in RIL rice population under drought conditions. Indonesian Journal of Natural Pigments. 2021;3(2):54-64. doi: 10.33479/ijnp.2021.03.2.54.
  23. Sitrarasi R, Nallal UM, Razia M, Chung WJ, Shim J, Chandrasekaran M, Dwiningsih Y, Rasheed RA, Alkahtani J, Elshikh MS, Debnath O, Ravindran B. Inhibition of multi-drug resistant microbial pathogens using an ecofriendly root extract of Furcraea foetida silver nanoparticles. Journal of King Saud University-Science. 2022;34(2):101794. doi: 10.1016/j.jksus.2021.101794.
  24. Hidayah A, Nisak RR, Susanto FA, Nuringtyas TR, Yamaguchi N, Purwestri YA. Seed Halopriming Improves Salinity Tolerance of Some Rice Cultivars During Seedling Stage. Bot Stud. 2022 Jul 25;63(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s40529-022-00354-9. PMID: 35877013; PMCID: PMC9314496.
  25. Sutrisno, Susanto FA, Wijayanti P, Retnoningrum MD, Nuringtyas TR, Joko T, Purwestri YA. Screening of resistant Indonesian black rice cultivars against bacterial leaf blight. Euphytica. 2018;214. doi: 10.1007/s10681-018-2279-z.
  26. Refli, Purwestri YA. The response of antioxidant genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling Cv. Cempo Ireng under drought and salinity stresses. AIP Publishing. Conference Proceedings. 2016;1744:020047. doi: 10.1063/1.4953521.
  27. Dwiningsih Y, Thomas J, Kumar A, Gupta C, Gill N, Ruiz C, Alkahtani J, Baisakh N, Pereira A. Identification of QTLs and candidate loci associated with drought-related traits of the K/Z RIL rice population. Preprint. Research Square. 2022. doi: 10.21203/
  28. Gusrianto WA. Perbedaan Mutu Organoleptik Beras Hitam Varietas Cempo Ireng, Jowo Melik, dan Toraja Sebagai Pangan Fungsional. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya. 2015.
  29. Salsabila N, Nandariyah, Yuniastuti E, Pujiasmanto B, Sutarno. Morphological characterization of 3 potential lines Cempo Ireng black rice result of Gamma-Ray irradiation. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2021;905:012024. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/905/1/012024.
  30. Dwiningsih Y, Alkahtani J. Genetics, biochemistry and biophysical analysis of anthocyanin in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Advance Sustainable Science, Engineering and Technology. 2022;4(1). doi: 10.26877/asset.v4i1.11659.
  31. Bashir S, Bakhsh Gulshan A, Iqbal J, Husain A, Alwahibi MS, Alkahtani J, Dwiningsih Y, Bakhsh A, Ahmed N, Jamal Khan M, Ibrahim M, Diao ZH. Comparative role of animal manure and vegetable waste induced compost for polluted soil restoration and maize growth. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021 Apr;28(4):2534-2539. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.057. Epub 2021 Feb 10. PMID: 33911965; PMCID: PMC8071889.
  32. Purwestri YA, Susanto FA, Fauzia AN. Flowering gene expression in Indonesia long harvest black rice (Oryza sativa L. ‘Cempo Ireng’). Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2019;13(6):874-880. doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1588.
  33. Ali MH, Khan MI, Bashir S, Azam M, Naveed M, Qadri R, Bashir S, Mehmood F, Shoukat MA, Li Y, Alkahtani J, Elshikh MS, Dwiningsih Y. Biochar and Bacillus sp. MN54 assisted phytoremediation of diesel and plant growth promotion of maize in hydrocarbons contaminated soil. Agronomy. 2021;11(9):1795. doi: 10.3390/agronomy11091795.
  34. Purwestri YA, Sari R, Anggraeni L, Sasongko A. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of rolC:Hd3a-GFP in black rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Cempo Ireng) to promote early flowering. Procedia Chemistry. 2015;14:469-473. doi: 10.1016/j.proche.2015.03.063.
  35. Dwiningsih Y, Rahmaningsih M, Alkahtani J. Development of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers in tropical crops. Advance Sustainable Science, Engineering and Technology. 2020;2(2). doi: 10.26877/asset.v2i2.6279.
  36. Tamaki S, Matsuo S, Wong HL, Yokoi S, Shimamoto K. Hd3a protein is a mobile flowering signal in rice. Science. 2007 May 18;316(5827):1033-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1141753. Epub 2007 Apr 19. PMID: 17446351.
  37. Suryanti V, Riyatun, Suharyana, Sutarno, Saputra O. Antioxidant activity and compound constituents of gamma-irradiated black rice (Oryza sativa L.) var. Cempo Ireng indigenous of Indonesia. Biodiversitas. 2020;21(9):4205-4212. doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d210935.
  38. Nandariyah, Devitha M, Parjanto Suharyana Riyatun, Sutarno. Evaluation agronomy character of irradiated black rice Cempo Ireng mutant strains M5 with 300 Gy of gamma rays. AIP Publishing. Conference Proceedings. 2020;2296 (1):020043. doi: 10.1063/5.0030491.
  39. Prabawa P, Purba J. Identifikasi Perubahan Fenotip Padi Beras Hitam (Oryza sativa L.) Cempo Ireng Hasil Perlakuan Kolkisin. Agro Bali (Agricultural Journal). 2019;2(1):1-7. doi: 10.37637/ab.v2i1.403.
  40. Riyatun, Suharyana, Ramelan AH, Saputra OA, Suryanti V. Proximate nutritional evaluation of gamma irradiated black rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Cempo Ireng). IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017;333:012073. doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/333/1/012073.
  41. Yuwono S, Sutoyo. Early growth performance some varieties of black rice (Oryza sativa L.) irradiated using gamma ray. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology. 2017;10(2):145-153.
  42. Masruroh F, Samanhudi Sulanjari, Yunus A. Improvement of rice (Oryza sativa L.) var. Ciherang and Cempo Ireng productivity using gamma irradiation. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2016;6:289-294. doi: 10.17265/2161-6264/2016.05.001.
  43. Widyasaputra R, Syamsir E, Budijanto S. Color and hardness comparison between parboiled and normal black rice. Food Scien Tech Journal. 2019;1(2):2685-4279. doi: 10.33512/fsj.v1i2.6723.
  44. Adil M, Bashir S, Bashir S, Aslam Z, Ahmad N, Younas T, Asghar RMA, Alkahtani J, Dwiningsih Y, Elshikh MS. Zinc oxide nanoparticles improved chlorophyll contents, physical parameters, and wheat yield under salt stress. Front Plant Sci. 2022 Aug 3;13:932861. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2022.932861. PMID: 35991444; PMCID: PMC9382196.
  45. Alkahtani J, Elshikh MS, Dwiningsih Y, Rathi MA, Sathya R, Vijayaraghavan P. In-vitro antidepressant property of methanol extract of Bacopa monnieri. Journal of King Saud University-Science. 2022;34:102299. doi: 10.1016/j.jksus.2022.102299.
  46. Nurhidayah S, Nasrudin Hamdah H, Rahayu Y. Adopsi Teknologi Jajar Legowo, pada Pertanaman Padi Hitam di Kelompok Taruna Tani Muarahurip Kota Tasikmalaya. Jurnal IKRAITH-ABDIMAS. 2022;1(5).
  47. Alshiekheid MA, Dwiningsih Y, Sabour AA, Alkahtani J. Phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb against agricultural and foodborne pathogens. Preprint. 2022. doi: 10.20944/preprints202208.0511.v1.
  48. Darussalam, Dewi K. Paclobutrazol and cytokinin regulation on culm growth of black rice (Oryza sativa L. “Cempo Ireng”). Bioeksperimen. 2022;8(2).
  49. Dwiningsih Y, Alkahtani J. Phenotypic variations, environmental effects and genetic basis analysis of grain elemental concentrations in rice (Oryza sativa L.) for improving human nutrition. Preprints. 2022;2022090263. doi: 10.20944/preprints202209.0263.v1.
  50. Fitriani. Respon anatomi batang tanaman padi hitam (Oryza sativa L. “Cempo Ireng”) dengan aplikasi paclobutrazol dan pupuk organic cair. Elkawnie: Journal of Islamic Science and Technology. 2017;3(1).
  51. Dwiningsih Y, Alkahtani J, Rojolele: A premium aromatic rice variety in indonesia. Preprints. 2022;2022100373. doi: 10.20944/preprints202210.0373.v1.
  52. Dewi K, Agustina R, Nurmalika F. Effects of blue light and paclobutrazol on seed germination, vegetative growth and yield of black rice (Oryza sativa L. ‘Cempo Ireng’). Biotropia. 2016;23(2):84-95. doi: 10.11598/btb.2016.23.2.478.
  53. Dwiningsih Y, Al-Kahtani J. Genome-wide association study of complex traits in maize detects genomic regions and genes for increasing grain yield and grain quality. Advance Sustainable Science Engineering and Technology. 2022;4(2):0220209. doi: 10.26877/asset.v4i2.12678.
  54. Lone J, Shikari A, Sofi N, Ganie S, Sharma M, Sharma M, Kumar M, Saleem MH, Almaary KS, Elshikh MS, Dwiningsih Y. Screening technique based on seed and early seedling parameters for cold tolerance of selected F2-derived F3 rice genotypes under controlled conditions. Sustainability. 2022;14(14):8447. doi: 10.3390/su14148447.
  55. Dwiningsih Y, Kumar A, Thomas J, Pereira A. Identification drought-tolerance rice variety for reducing climatic impacts on rice production. In Fulbright Enrichment Seminar Climate Change, Estes Park, Colorado, USA. 2017.
  56. Rock WRL. Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Arkansas (AR). 2020.
  57. Ismanto A, Hadibarata T, Widada S, Indrayanti E, Ismunarti DH, Safinatunnajah N, Kusumastuti W, Dwiningsih Y, Alkahtani J. Groundwater contamination status in Malaysia: level of heavy metal, source, health impact, and remediation technologies. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2023 Mar;46(3):467-482. doi: 10.1007/s00449-022-02826-5. Epub 2022 Dec 15. PMID: 36520279.
  58. Dewi K, Darussalam. Effect of paclobutrazol and cytokinin on growth and source-sink relationship during grain filling of black rice (Oryza sativa L. “Cempo Ireng”). Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. 2018;23:507-515. doi: 10.1007/s40502-018-0397-1.
  59. Dwiningsih Y, Kumar A, Thomas J, Gupta C, Ruiz C, Alkahtani J, Baisakh N, Pereira A. Identification and expression of abscisic acid-regulated genes in US RIL rice population under drought conditions. In 82nd Meeting of Southern Section of the American Society of Plant Biologists. 2021.
  60. Dewi K. Growth, yield and anthocyanin content in black rice (Oryza sativa L. ‘Cempo Ireng’) treated with paclobutrazol and methyl jasmonate. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. 2018.
  61. Dwiningsih Y, Kumar A, Thomas J, Yingling S, Pereira A. Identification of QTLs associated with drought resistance traits at reproductive stage in K/Z RILs rice population. In 5th Annual Meeting of the Arkansas Bioinformatics Consortium AR-BIC. 2020.
  62. Dwiningsih Y, Kumar A, Thomas J, Yingling S, Pereira A. Molecular genetic analysis of drought resistance and productivity in K/Z RIL rice population. Arkansas Bioinformatics Consortium. 2019.
  63. Dwiningsih Y, Thomas J, Kumar A, Gupta C, Crowley E, Ruiz C, Pereira A. Drought stress response in US recombinant inbred line of rice population. In National Science Foundation (NSF) 26th National Conference. 2019;26(76):127.
  64. Ardiansyah, Nada A, Rahmawati NTI, Oktriani A, David W, Astuti RM, Handoko DD, Kusbiantoro B, Budijanto S, Shirakawa H. Volatile Compounds, Sensory Profile and Phenolic Compounds in Fermented Rice Bran. Plants (Basel). 2021 May 27;10(6):1073. doi: 10.3390/plants10061073. PMID: 34071857; PMCID: PMC8229494.
  65. Dwiningsih Y, Thomas J, Kumar A, Gupta C, Yingling S, Basu S, Pereira A. Circadian expression patterns of the HYR gene. Arkansas Bioinformatics Consortium. 2018;7(11):34.
  66. Nadhifah A, Fibri D, Handoko D, David W, Budijanto S, Shirakawa H, Ardiansyah. The volatile compounds and aroma profile of some pigmented rice brans after fermentation. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2022;10(1):145-170. doi: 10.12944/CRNFSJ.10.1.11.
  67. Dwiningsih Y, Alkahtani J. Agronomics, genomics, breeding and intensive cultivation of Ciherang rice variety. Preprints. 2022. doi: 10.20944/preprints202211.0489.
  68. Dwiningsih Y, Kumar A, Thomas J, Gupta C, Ruiz C, Baisakh N, Pereira A. QTLs analysis and identification of candidate genes for flag leaf characteristics related to grain yield in US RIL rice population under drought conditions. In ASA, CSSA, SSSA International Annual Meeting. ASA-CSSA-SSSA. 2021.


Swift, Reliable, and studious. We aim to cherish the world by publishing precise knowledge.

  • Brown University Library
  • University of Glasgow Library
  • University of Pennsylvania, Penn Library
  • University of Amsterdam Library
  • The University of British Columbia Library
  • UC Berkeley’s Library
  • MIT Libraries
  • Kings College London University
  • University of Texas Libraries
  • UNSW Sidney Library
  • The University of Hong Kong Libraries
  • UC Santa Barbara Library
  • University of Toronto Libraries
  • University of Oxford Library
  • Australian National University
  • ScienceOpen
  • UIC Library
  • KAUST University Library
  • Cardiff University Library
  • Ball State University Library
  • Duke University Library
  • Rutgers University Library
  • Air University Library
  • UNT University of North Texas
  • Washington Research Library Consortium
  • Penn State University Library
  • Georgetown Library
  • Princeton University Library
  • Science Gate
  • Internet Archive
  • WashingTon State University Library
  • Dimensions
  • Zenodo
  • OpenAire
  • Index Copernicus International
  • icmje
  •  International Scientific Indexing (ISI)
  • Sherpa Romeo
  • ResearchGate
  • Universidad De Lima
  • WorldCat
  • JCU Discovery
  • McGill
  • National University of Singepore Libraries
  • SearchIT
  • Scilit
  • SemantiScholar
  • Base Search
  • VU
  • KB
  • Publons
  • oaji
  • Harvard University
  • sjsu-library
  • UWLSearch
  • Florida Institute of Technology
  • CrossRef
  • LUBsearch
  • Universitat de Paris
  • Technical University of Denmark
  • ResearchBIB
  • Google Scholar
  • Microsoft Academic Search