Covid-19 Research

Research Article

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9152970575

Dietary Metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn) Exposure and Associated Health Risks in Baia Mare Area, Northwestern Romania

General Science    Start Submission

Mirela Miclean* and Oana Cadar

Volume2-Issue7
Dates: Received: 2021-06-13 | Accepted: 2021-07-18 | Published: 2021-07-22
Pages: 580-592

Abstract

This study estimated the non-carcinogenic health risk of Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn via dietary intake in the urban and rural areas of Baia Mare city, northwestern Romania, a former mining area. A total of 230 food items grouped in ten food categories (meat and animal organs, meat-derived products, animal fat, eggs, dairy, bread, corn flour, potato, vegetables, fruits) and 32 water samples were collected and analyzed for Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn using atomic absorption spectrometric method. The human health risk assessment through dietary exposure was evaluated by calculating the estimated daily intake of metals, the Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) and the Total Target Hazard Quotients (TTHQ) for normal daily consumption in adults. The average daily intakes of Pb, Cd and Zn were higher than the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) reference value for urban and rural residents, which showed that there was a potentially high risk of ingestion of food and water. The average daily intake of Cu with food and drinking water was lower than the corresponding TDI value, which indicated that Cu intake was not a potential hazard to the health of residents in the study areas. The individual target hazard quotients, calculated for food consumption in urban area decreased in the following order: Cd>Cu>Pb>Zn, and in rural area: Pb>Cd>Cu>Zn, having values higher than 1 for Pb and Cd in the rural area and approximately equal to 1 for Cd (urban) and Cu (rural), indicating non-carcinogenic adverse health effects. The TTHQs for the two areas (urban and rural) were 2.934 and 5.164, respectively, established cumulative adverse effects of metals. The results showed that vegetables, potato and bread were the main sources of metal intake from foodstuff for adults, but fruit, water and meat were secondary contributors.

FullText HTML FullText PDF DOI: 10.37871/jbres1280


Certificate of Publication




Copyright

© 2021 Miclean M, et al. Distributed under Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0

How to cite this article

Miclean M, Cadar O. Dietary Metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn) Exposure and Associated Health Risks in Baia Mare Area, Northwestern Romania. J Biomed Res Environ Sci. 2021 July 22; 2(7): 580-592. doi: 10.37871/jbres1280, Article ID: JBRES1280, Available at: https://www.jelsciences.com/articles/jbres1280.pdf


Subject area(s)

References


  1. Wai KM, Dai J, Yu PKN, Zhou X, Wong CMS. Public health risk of mercury in china through consumption of vegetables, a modelling study. Environ Res. 2017 Nov;159:152-157. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.08.010. Epub 2017 Aug 9. PMID: 28800473.
  2. Jan AT, Azam M, Siddiqui K, Ali A, Choi I, Haq QM. Heavy metals and human health: Mechanistic insight into toxicity and counter defense system of antioxidants. Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Dec 10;16(12):29592-29630. doi: 10.3390/ijms161226183. PMID: 26690422; PMCID: PMC4691126.
  3. Marini M, Tsorochidou E, Caro D, Thomsen M. Daily intake of heavy metals and minerals in food - a case study of four Danish dietary profiles, J Clean Prod. 2021;280(Part 1):124279. https://tinyurl.com/3ewf9das
  4. Esposito F, Nardone A, Fasano E, Scognamiglio G, Esposito D, Agrelli D, Ottaiano L, Fagnano M, Adamo P, Beccaloni E, Vanni F, Cirillo T. A systematic risk characterization related to the dietary exposure of the population to potentially toxic elements through the ingestion of fruit and vegetables from a potentially contaminated area. A case study: The issue of the “Land of Fires” area in Campania region, Italy. Environ Pollut. 2018 Dec;243(Pt B):1781-1790. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.058. Epub 2018 Sep 15. PMID: 30408865.
  5. González N, Calderón J, Rúbies A, Timoner I, Castell V, Domingo JL, Nadal M. Dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead by the population of Catalonia, Spain: Analysis of the temporal trend. Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 Oct;132:110721. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.110721. Epub 2019 Jul 27. PMID: 31362088.
  6. Raghunath R, Tripathi RM, Suseela B, Bhalke S, Shukla VK, Puranik VD. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population. Sci Total Environ. 2006 Mar 1;356(1-3):62-68. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.04.035. Epub 2005 Jul 28. PMID: 16054674.
  7. Wang M, Liang B, Zhang W, Chen K, Zhang Y, Zhou H, Cheng Y, Liu H, Zhong X, Li Y, Liu Y. Dietary lead exposure and associated health risks in guangzhou, china. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Apr 19;16(8):1417. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16081417. PMID: 31010248; PMCID: PMC6517897.
  8. Levei E, Frentiu T, Ponta M, Şenilă M, Miclean M, Roman C, Cordos E. Characterisation of soil quality and mobility of cd, cu, pb and zn in the baia mare area northwest romania following the historical pollution. Int J Environ Anal Chem. 2009;89(8-12):635-649. https://tinyurl.com/yjsv9jb3
  9. Senila M, Levei E, Miclean M, Senila L, Stefanescu L, Ozunu A, Roman C. Influence of pollution level on heavy metals mobility in soil from NW Romania. Environ Eng Manag J. 2011;10(1):59-64. https://tinyurl.com/3jvwvuxs
  10. Miclean M, Levei E, Cadar O, Groza I. Comparison of two empirical models for soil to ryegrass transfer of metals in Baia Mare mining area. Carpathian J Earth Environ Sci. 2013;8(4):93-100. https://tinyurl.com/42w6andu
  11. Miclean M, Cadar O, Levei L, Senila L, Ozunu A. Metal contents and potential health risk assessment of crops grown in a former mining district (Romania). J Environ Sci Health B. 2018;53(9):595-601. doi: 10.1080/03601234.2018.1473966. Epub 2018 May 29. PMID: 29842846.
  12. Miclean M, Cadar O, Levei EA, Roman R, Ozunu A, Levei L. Metal (Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn) transfer along food chain and health risk assessment through raw milk consumption from free-range cows. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16:4064. https://tinyurl.com/5ycan44d
  13. ISO 15586-2008. Water quality. Determination of trace elements using atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace.
  14. Wcisło E, Ioven D, Kucharski R, Szdzuj J. Human health risk assessment case study: An abandoned metal smelter site in Poland. Chemosphere. 2002 May;47(5):507-515. doi: 10.1016/s0045-6535(01)00301-0. PMID: 11996126.
  15. Lim HS, Lee JS, Chon HT, Sager M. Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in the vicinity of the abandoned Songcheon Au-Ag mine in Korea. J Geochem Explor. 2008;96:223-230. https://tinyurl.com/4brh7jt6
  16. Khillare PS, Jyethi DS, Sarkar S. Health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals via dietary intake of vegetables grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 May;50(5):1642-1652. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.01.032. Epub 2012 Feb 1. PMID: 22326808.
  17. Cherfi A, Achour M, Cherfi M, Otmani S, Morsli A. Health risk assessment of heavy metals through consumption of vegetables irrigated with reclaimed urban wastewater in Algeria. Process Saf Environ Prot. 2015;98:245-252. https://tinyurl.com/9fsuftfs
  18. Wei J, Gao J, Cen K. Levels of eight heavy metals and health risk assessment considering food consumption by China’s residents based on the 5th China total diet study. Sci Total Environ. 2019 Nov 1;689:1141-1148. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.502. Epub 2019 Jun 30. PMID: 31466154.
  19. Department of Health and Ageing and Health Council, Environmental Health Risk Environmental Health Risk Assessment, Guidelines for assessing human health risks from environmental hazards, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra. 2004:124.
  20. Sipter E, Rózsa E, Gruiz K, Tátrai E, Morvai V. Site-specific risk assessment in contaminated vegetable gardens. Chemosphere. 2008 Apr;71(7):1301-1317. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.039. Epub 2008 Jan 11. PMID: 18191173.
  21. Shokunbi OS, Adepoju OT, Mojapelo PEL, Ramaite IDI, Akinyele IO. Copper, manganese, iron and zinc contents of Nigerian foods and estimates of adult dietary intakes. J Food Compos Anal. 2019;82:103245. https://tinyurl.com/yd988kjy
  22. Bowen HJM. The elemental content of human diets and extreta. In: Bowen, HJM (Ed.), Environmental Chemistry. The Royal Society of Chemistry. 1981:70-93.
  23. Rubio C, Gutiérrez AJ, Revert C, Reguera JI, Burgos A, Hardisson A. Daily dietary intake of iron, copper, zinc and manganese in a Spanish population. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009 Nov;60(7):590-600. doi: 10.3109/09637480802039822. PMID: 19817638.
  24. Ysart G, Miller P, Crews H, Robb P, Baxter M, De L’Argy C, Lofthouse S, Sargent C, Harrison N. Dietary exposure estimates of 30 elements from the UK total diet study. Food Addit Contam. 1999 Sep;16(9):391-403. doi: 10.1080/026520399283876. PMID: 10755130.
  25. Reilly C. The Nutritional Trace Metals. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford. 2004:12.
  26. Santos EE, Lauria DC, Porto da Silveira CL. Assessment of daily intake of trace elements due to consumption of foodstuffs by adult inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro city. Sci Total Environ. 2004 Jul 5;327(1-3):69-79. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.01.016. PMID: 15172572.
  27. de Winter-Sorkina R, Bakker MI, van Donkersgoed G, van Klaveren JD. Dietary intake of heavy metals (cadmium, lead and mercury) by the Dutch population. RIVM report 32010001/2003.
  28. The International Programme on Chemical Safety, WHO. http://www.who.int/ipcs/food/jecfa/en/
  29. Ikeda M, Zhang ZM, Shimbo S, Watanabe T, Nakatsuka H, Moon CS, Inoguchi NM, Higashikawa K. Urban population exposure to lead and cadmium in east and south-east Asia. Sci Total Environ. 2000;249:373-384. https://tinyurl.com/2hbxvfvf
  30. Watanabe T, Zhang ZW, Qu JB, Gao WP, Jian ZK, Shimbo S, Nakatsuka H, Matsuda-Inoguchi N, Higashikawa K, Ikeda M. Background lead and cadmium exposure of adult women in Xian City and two farming villages in Shaanxi Province, China. Sci Total Environ. 2000 Feb 28;247(1):1-13. doi: 10.1016/s0048-9697(99)00416-7. PMID: 10721138.
  31. Biego GH, Joyeux M, Hartemann P, Debry G. Daily intake of essential minerals and metallic micropollutants from foods in France. Sci Total Environ. 1998 Jun 30;217(1-2):27-36. doi: 10.1016/s0048-9697(98)00160-0. PMID: 9695171.
  32. Bratter VN, Bratter P, Schulze GRA, Alvarez N. Determination of mineral and trace elements in total diet by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: comparison of microwave-based digestion and pressurized ashing systems using different acid mixtures. J Anal At Spectrom. 1995;10:487-490. https://tinyurl.com/y5b4mynt
  33. Dang HS. Daily dietary intake. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. 1998. https://tinyurl.com/3ny73jtz
  34. Zheng N, Wang Q, Zheng D. Health risk of Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu to the inhabitants around Huludao Zinc Plant in China via consumption of vegetables. Sci Total Environ. 2007 Sep 20;383(1-3):81-89. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.05.002. Epub 2007 Jun 15. PMID: 17573096.
  35. Ding AF, Pan GX. Contents of heavy metals in soils and chinese cabbages from some urban vegetable fields around nanjing and human health risks. Ecol Environ. 2003;12(4):409-411.
  36. Issa AB, Yasin K, Loutfy N. Risk assessment of heavy metals associated with food consumption in Egypt: A pilot study. J Clin Exp Tox. 2018;2(1):15-24. https://tinyurl.com/kfu2nssd
  37. US EPA. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). 2006. https://tinyurl.com/3fh9v2pc
  38. Chien LC, Hung TC, Choang KY, Yeh CY, Meng PJ, Shieh MJ, Ha BC. Daily intake of TBT, Cu, Zn, Cd and as for fishermen in Taiwan. Sci Total Environ. 2002 Feb 21;285(1-3):177-185. doi: 10.1016/s0048-9697(01)00916-0. PMID: 11874040.
  39. Chary NS, Kamala CT, Raj DS. Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2008 Mar;69(3):513-524. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2007.04.013. Epub 2007 Jun 6. PMID: 17555815.
  40. Zhuang P, McBride MB, Xia H, Li N, Li Z. Health risk from heavy metals via consumption of food crops in the vicinity of dabaoshan mine, south china. Sci Total Environ. 2009 Feb 15;407(5):1551-1561. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.10.061. Epub 2008 Dec 9. PMID: 19068266.
  41. Khan S, Cao Q, Zheng YM, Huang YZ, Zhu YG. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environ Pollut. 2008 Apr;152(3):686-692. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.056. Epub 2007 Aug 27. PMID: 17720286.
  42. Sipter E, Rózsa E, Gruiz K, Tátrai E, Morvai V. Site-specific risk assessment in contaminated vegetable gardens. Chemosphere. 2008 Apr;71(7):1301-1307. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.039. Epub 2008 Jan 11. PMID: 18191173.
  43. Huang SS, Liao QL, Hua M, Wu XM, Bi KS, Yan CY, Chen B, Zhang XY. Survey of heavy metal pollution and assessment of agricultural soil in Yangzhong district, Jiangsu Province, China. Chemosphere. 2007 May;67(11):2148-2155. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.12.043. Epub 2007 Feb 2. PMID: 17275882.


Comments


Swift, Reliable, and studious. We aim to cherish the world by publishing precise knowledge.

  • UNSW Sidney Library
  • The University of Hong Kong Libraries
  • UC Santa Barbara Library
  • University of Toronto Libraries
  • University of Oxford Library
  • Australian National University
  • ScienceOpen
  • UIC Library
  • KAUST University Library
  • Cardiff University Library
  • Ball State University Library
  • Duke University Library
  • Rutgers University Library
  • Air University Library
  • UNT University of North Texas
  • Washington Research Library Consortium
  • Penn State University Library
  • Georgetown Library
  • Princeton University Library
  • Science Gate
  • Internet Archive
  • WashingTon State University Library
  • Dimensions
  • Zenodo
  • OpenAire
  • Index Copernicus International
  • icmje
  •  International Scientific Indexing (ISI)
  • Sherpa Romeo
  • ResearchGate
  • Universidad De Lima
  • WorldCat
  • JCU Discovery
  • McGill
  • National University of Singepore Libraries
  • SearchIT
  • Scilit
  • SemantiScholar
  • Base Search
  • VU
  • KB
  • Publons
  • oaji
  • Harvard University
  • sjsu-library
  • UWLSearch
  • Florida Institute of Technology
  • CrossRef
  • LUBsearch
  • Universitat de Paris
  • Technical University of Denmark
  • ResearchBIB
  • Google Scholar
  • Microsoft Academic Search

 

 

COVID-19 alert